Thursday, 22 June 2017

The Führer's Proclamation to the German People and the Note of the German Foreign Office to the Soviet Government, together with appendices




The following 88-page booklet published by the government of the Third Reich contains Adolf Hitler’s speech to the German people concerning his decision to declare war against the Soviet Union, and the official diplomatic message sent to the Soviets, outlining in great detail their crimes and plots against Germany, which violated the terms of the mutual Non-Aggression Pact. These violations are documented and a number of secret intelligence reports provided to Hitler which formed the basis of his decision to declare war on Stalin are also included in this must-read booklet.

This document shows clearly the true, legal basis concerning the war against the USSR in 1941, which support and justify the actions of Adolf Hitler, who had obviously been deceived and betrayed by the treacherous, double-dealing war monger Stalin. Hitler adopted the only attitude and course of action which a responsible German leader and representative of European culture and civilization could take.

Hitler’s intentions, from the time he first came to power in 1933 had always been peaceful and his actions honorable. He had always worked towards these objectives in good faith and with great patience. It was the WWI western allies and their international financial masters who wanted war all along and who would settle for nothing less, and who preferred to back a well-known murderous beast, namely Joseph Stalin, and to have the bloody horrors of Bolshevism be poured out upon European soil, than to have peaceful coexistence with a strong, free, independent and prosperous Germany.

Hitler and his Axis nation partners realized in 1941 that they had to now face this very real threat to Western Europe head on, as Stalin had been planning to attack all along, when Germany had her hands full on the western front. Hitler’s declaration of war was legally and morally justified by any reasonable standard of international warfare and justice, and only a multi-national effort could hope to prevent the Bolshevik takeover of all of Europe.

Tuesday, 20 June 2017

Die Deutsche Wochenschau – Newsreel No. 611 – 20 May 1942


- Romanian Troops Parade in Bucharest;
- Captain Topp's U-boat Returns to Port after Sinking 7 Allied Freighters;
- German and Finnish Troops in Action on the Murmansk Front;
- After Heavy fighting Kerch in the Crimea Captured by German Troops;

Saturday, 17 June 2017

European Front


Source: SS Leitheft, February 1944

The harder this war affects the European folks, the greater the energies which it awakens in these folks and sets into motion. Outmoded government ideas disappear under the impact of this war as if they never existed. The artificial assortment of states of the Versailles Treaty is crushed, and under suffering and tears a new era is born. We ourselves are only a wave in the flood which is setting the folks of Europe in motion. The ideas of race and socialism are shaking the folks of Europe and pushing them to new forms of state life. Under the impact of the Bolshevik drive of expansion and the meanness of the enemy's bombing attacks the folks of Europe are being irresistibly drawn closer together, and a feeling of community is emerging which never existed before in the past times of the only apparent prosperity in Europe. It would be wrong to compare the condition of Europe with the one it found itself in when the French Revolution and Napoleon shook the states and folks. Back then the waves of a revolutionary flood struck an outdated Europe lacking an idea under the leadership of the reactionary Chancellor Metternich and destroyed the untenable and hollow system of a European state jumble under Austrian leadership. Today’s Europe does not find itself in a condition of the mere preservation and defence of the past. In that it has become conscious of its Germanic tradition, it breaks outmoded state borders and brings folks together. The old world is represented by the enemy in the west and in the east. Capitalism and Marxism are only the sick tips of the outmoded conception of the purpose of life and of the value of man. The New Europe is carried by the energy of the revolutionary idea of socialism and race. It thus finds itself simultaneously in a condition of defence and attack: attack, because it opposes a sick and outdated world with a better one. The socialism is not only a domestic program of the Reich, which strives for a human order on the basis of accomplishment, but also contains - viewed beyond the state - the program of a New Order of the European folks on the basis of the free development of their folkish values and on the basis of their historical accomplishment.

The Power of the Reich Idea

In the ranks of the Waffen-SS today fight Dutchmen, Flemings, Walloons, Scandinavians, Estonians and Latvians, and soon other folks will dress their awakened youth in the same uniform and thus form the European Front under the SS symbol, which has been born from the need of this hour and forms the foundation of a coming order in Europe. Whoever may have had doubts about the strength of the idea is corrected when he today meets Dutchmen or Estonians in the Waffen-SS, who are more fanatical and determined champions of the Reich idea than many Germans inside the Reich. Thereby we meet the recognition that the service of these men in the east is the steel bath of the Reich idea. The men who have fought over there with the Reich German SS against the Bolsheviks have cast everything behind, all the prejudices that still hamper their contemporaries who have not shared the unique, difficult front experience. In the struggle against our most difficult opponent, the Reich idea in all its radiant beauty is reborn. A European feeling of community is emerging which no longer knows the hesitations of the politicians stuck in the old state theories. These European volunteer SS leaders and SS men are the vanguard of the European front. They love their homeland, and because they love this homeland and are loyal to it deep down, they want as a prize of war a new world, organized by a strong Reich which alone is able to save their homeland and protect the living body of their folk. Certainly, these men are minorities in their folks. World history, however, is always made by the few men who have the courage to dare the new. The hesitations follow only later. One must page through the family history of one such volunteer in order to feel how powerful the idea of the Reich affects this youth. There is, for example, a Fleming. He fights in the ranks of the Waffen-SS. His father is a high-ranking Belgian colonial administrator and now stands in English service; his grandfather was a member of the Belgian parliament, a fanatical representative of French culture against the Flemish opposition of his own homeland. The grandson embraces the Reich and Adolf Hitler. What a break in eras declares itself! What a strong attraction is possessed by the personality of the Führer! How powerful do the blood and the Reich idea speak, that the young men of these folks declare themselves ready to die for this Reich, from which their ancestors have lived apart for decades, yes for centuries!

The European Task of the SS

The SS is hence growing more and more into its European task: It gathers the awakened European youth in the struggle against Bolshevism and the Jewish plutocracies. Whoever may think that the SS hence forfeits its original character or deviates from the strict principles of the Reich has no understanding of the revolutionary idea of National Socialism, which sweeps across the borders of nation states. No one in Europe today believes, regardless of how the war may end, in the return of the artificial state system of Versailles, which owes its existence solely to the English interference in European affairs. It is understandable that through the impact of this war the veneer of a historical development, which often has only lasted a few decades, is wiped away and now the common roots of the European family of folks again comes to light. The fact of the Germanic wandering and the former Germanic settlement between the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea to the Atlantic Ocean and North Africa has formed the blood unity of Europe and created that which we call European culture. The New Order of these folks arises on this same foundation. America and England have no genuine program for a political New Order of the European continent. They view Europe already today only as a colony, which they intend to economically exploit. Bolshevism has just as little to offer Europe in ideas. Marxism recognizes no real folk, just as little as it can accept the concept of blood into its dictionary. National Socialism alone affirms the roots of each genuine folk. It knows that only he who is loyal to his homeland can be loyal to the Reich. The revolutionary socialism of Adolf Hitler means for Europe not only a regulation of the relations of the European folk to each other on the basis of their historical accomplishment and their participation in the present struggle. From the world view of this movement alone emerges the creative strength and the rich fullness of possible bonds of the folks and nations of Europe to the leadership of a strong Reich. One must clearly see that an inner and outer order of Europe can only stem from the depth of the National Socialist view of history. The SS already today forms the iron ring of those men who yearn with passionate hearts for the New Order of Europe under the leadership of a strong Germanic middle. Without the participation of these men the new cannot emerge. It is as if our continent is shaken by a high fever; it is the birth pain of a new era, which wants to arise from the foundation of the blood community of the European family of folks and of a socialist order of their life together.

Whatever path fate may lead us down toward this goal and whatever setbacks may still be in store for us, the goal itself remains fixed. It is the only goal for which it is at all worth living and fighting for. The SS knows that everything must be employed so that the comrades from the European East grow together with it into a community of struggle just like those from the west. Intelligent treatment, a great measure of ability must be used to achieve this goal. The SS remains uncompromising in its principles, in the accomplishment of its practical tasks creative and generous. It must be flexible enough to treat each folk according to its nature and history. It must be our task to form the European youth together into a hard and determined front. The western enemy is not ready to die for a higher world, because he does not recognize it. The enemy in the east has only brought the folks suppression and degradation. If there are inalienable human values, then they are defended by the front of the German army. On our side stands a new idea. To our side must eventually tip the scale of fate, if we remain hard and conscious of the entire historical responsibility of this struggle.

Wednesday, 14 June 2017

German Forced Labor and its Compensation



A Postwar Problem to Be Finally Resolved


By Prof. Dr. H.C. Emil Schlee
Published: 2004-12-01

The public discussion about the compensation of former concentration camp inmates and forced laborers is not only characterized by covering up facts and raising legends and horror stories to reality. It is far more marked by a partiality and one-sidedness which can hardly be surpassed. As is customary, it is also here again overlooked, that the German people, which has had to pay the bill over the past five decades for the so-called reparation, has itself suffered far more under the unjust treatment by the victors and their Allies. Described below is the injustice of the internationally illegal deportation and forced labor of millions of German men, women and children – uncorrected and not even publicly recognized as such – and a minimal restitution for this injustice is calculated.

German Prisoners of War in:[13]
Great Britain
3,635,000
USA
3,097,000
USSR
3,060,000
France
937,000
Yugoslavia
194,000
Poland
70,000
Belgium
64,000
CSSR
25,000
Netherlands
7,000
Luxemburg
5,000
Total
11,094,000
Of these in the East
3,349,000
Of these in the West
7,745,000
(Without interned civilians)

1. The Burden of “One-sidedness” in the Historical “Coming to Terms with the Past”

 

Winfried Martini began the introduction of his informative book Der Sieger schreibt die Geschichte (The Victor Writes the History) with the sentence:[1]

“It is part of the fascinating phenomena of our time, to what extent a military defeat influences the historiography and the general awareness of history and how the victor is spared from moral judgments.”
This experience belonged in the 20th century to the everyday life of the Germans. A century, which was not “The German century”[2] according to Prof. Eberhard Jäckel, but as Prof. Arnulf Baring correctly questions:[3]

“Was our century not coined by the rise of the United States to finally become the only world power? [...] However one likes to twist and turn it: [...] it was not at all ours, neither in good nor in bad.”

But, united in “evil,” an anti-German coalition was created subsequent to the time of the resignation of Otto von Bismarck in 1890, perceived secretly, with an unsurpassable destructive intent and goal, to break up the German Reich of Bismarck, to destroy the German people for all time, and to remove the German economic competition from the world for good. In order to achieve this goal, every means was right.

The central figure of this century with a universal mission was the long serving American President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882–1945), who was acting minister of the navy from 1913–1920, and President of the United States of America from 1933–1945, and who had great influence during the times of both world wars. He organized the largest war machinery in world history,[4] which rolled over the 20th century during two World Wars (also called the “Third Thirty Year War”), regardless whether the rest of the world desired this or not. His troops are still in Germany at the beginning of this 21st century, the Federal republic of Germany is still loaded with numerous dictates, and the victor writes the history.

The latter overloads all Germans with clear one-sidedness of guilt and debt, demands and payments, including compensation for forced labor done in Germany in large numbers, demanded or sued for in courts. Scientific reviews of the prehistory and the actual evolvement of world events during the twentieth century show that it is untenable to place on Germany the exclusive war guilt with all the demands and legal violations resulting from it.[5]

POW Camps for Germans in:
Canada
50
USA
450
USA (in Germany)
463
Norway
97
Great Britain
284
British camps in Germany
160
Poland
1,005
France
650
Belgium
30
CSSR
1,409
Rumania
207
Yugoslavia
1,094
Hungary
112
Italia
97
Bulgaria
25
Algeria
11
Libya
10
Egypt
39
USSR
2,125
Australia
9
Total:
8,327

Besides the fact that the saying “the first victim during a war is always the truth”[6] remained unfortunately as true for Germany after the end of the war as it is today, the general concealment of their own guilt by the victorious powers in connection with the ongoing cynical-hypocritical blaming of Germany indicates an abyss of human failure, which cannot be a base for a peaceful future and will sooner or later be caught up by the historic truth! The German poet and playwright Friedrich Hebbel (1813–1863) noted rightly in the first volume of his well known Tagebücher?[7]

“There is only one sin, which can be committed against the whole of mankind with all its generations, and this is the falsification of history!”

From hundreds of testimonies, documents, and scientific works, which attest against the sole guilt of Germany for both World Wars, only two are mentioned here. The U.S. historian Prof. H.E. Barnes noted with regards to the question of war guilt of the First World War:[9]

“Of all warring powers Germany was the only one which carries no blame at all for the beginning of the war.”

And the Polish States Secretary of the Foreign Ministry, Count Szembek, said on April 11, 1935, to U.S. ambassador W.C. Bullitt:[10]

“We are witnessing an aggressive policy of the world against Hitler, more than an aggressive policy of Hitler against the world.”

The former Foreign Secretary Henry J. Kissinger also revealed in Die Welt am Sonntag on March 1, 1992:[11]


“America waged war [on Germany] twice within the period of only one generation, because the American presidents were convinced that the dominance of a single hostile nation in Europe would be a threat against the American security and economical interests. Nothing has changed of this reality.”

In an interview with the Berliner Zeitung on January 3, 1997, author Gore Vidal, a cousin of former U.S. vice president Al Gore, explained frankly:[12]

“We started in 1945 to conquer the globe. NATO was not established to protect the poor Europeans from the Russians, but to obtain total control over Western Europe.”

Today, Germany is still without a peace treaty, and it feels the burden and provocation of this restraint! This situation also explains the continuous demands for compensation from all over the world against Germany, which herself does not oppose this at all.

2. There were also Millions of German Forced Laborers!

 

Number of Days of Imprisonment of German POWs and Deported Civilians[8]
Year
In Eastern Internment
In Western Internment
1941
2,422,000
1,740,000
1942
40,050,000
6,383,000
1943
65,154,000
32,800,000
1944
158,647,000
140,111,000
1945
644,725,000
1,538,093,000
1946
502,850,000
736,463,000
1947
396,794,000
325,965,000
1948
265,645,000
65,747,000
1949
116,842,000
1950
12,763,000
Total
2,205,892,000
2,847,302,000

Contrary to the subject “Forced Labor in the Third Reich,” there are hardly any investigations about “Forced Labor of German POWs and Civilian Internees in Foreign Countries” (see the tables).[13]

It is shocking to observe the one-sidedness, with which topics like war guilt, the German Wehrmacht, plans for world domination, and now also the subject of “Forced Labor and Compensation” are dealt with. It is conspicuous to observe the missing attempt to view the specific topic of “forced labor” in a contemporary frame in the sense of similar events in almost all countries, which participated in the war. The starting point is always the claim that Germany is exclusively guilty for everything, even though this has been refuted for quite some time now. Most historians have still not noticed major changes of the historiography on the world wars.

The army of German forced laborers of almost twelve million German soldiers and 1.7 million deported German civilians in twenty different countries, sometimes with forced stays of more than ten years in these countries, appears to them to be no subject at all. They talk about one of the biggest Nazi crimes, of which reparations have not yet been made, “although already during the Nuremberg trials one of the four main charges was ‘slave labor’.”[14] But nobody seems to notice that the judges of these tribunals come from countries, where such “biggest crimes” were unfolding simultaneously.

Number of Work Days of German POWs and Deported Civilians 1941–1956
Year
In Eastern Internment
In Western Internment
Total
1941
1942
23,013,600
23,013,600
1943
33,052,875
2,339,475
35,392,350
1944
81,989,325
10,964,700
92,954,025
1945
317,337,375
118,856,700
436,194,075
1946
340,344,150
257,233,500
597,577,650
1947
286,095,300
170,410,575
456,505,875
1948
196,648,425
32,463,150
229,111,575
1949
90,246,150
90,246,150
1950
9,643,875
9,643,875
1951–1956
28,731,600
28,731,600
Total
1,407,102,675
592,268,100
1,999,370,775

Or take Prof. Dr. Ulrich Herbert (Freiburg, Germany), who, in a full page essay with the title “The Million Army of the Modern Slave State. Deported, worn out, forgotten: Who were the forced laborers of the Third Reich, and what was the fate ahead of them?” writes thoughtlessly:[15]

“The National Socialist deployment of foreigners between 1939 and 1945 is the biggest case of forced mass utilization of foreign labor in history since the end of slavery in the nineteenth century. By the late summer of 1944, 7.6 million foreign civilian workers and POWs were officially registered as employees within the area of the  ‘Großdeutsche Reich,’ who were mostly brought into the Reich by force.”

This article gives the impression that the “slave state of the Soviet Union” did not exist at all, where Siberia from the Ural Mountains to the Bering Strait became a gigantic international cemetery of the dead from more than 28 nations.[16] Also during the time in question, from 1939 to 1945 and until 1956, the “Soviet foreign employment,” which included the German POWs and civilian deportees, continuously “employed” a two-digit million number. These slaves had to perform their slave labor in more than 2,000 work and death camps, partly under the most primitive living and camp conditions (e.g.Workuta).

There were still more than 20 million forced laborers in the fall of 1955.[17] After the war, the “people’s democracies” of the east reached a record high in deportation for forced labor. Secret Soviet orders existed to arrest, for example, 27,000 Germans who were able to work below ground in the area of communist East Germany and to exchange them for German POWs who were no longer able to work in the Soviet Union.[18]

Destruction of Health: German Returnees Unable to Work[8]
Country detained in
Date of Return
No. of Returnees
% unemployable
Transit or Discharge Camp
Great Britain
1948 Mar-Nov
11,499
0
Hammelberg
France
1947 May-Jun
370
28
Ulm-Kienlesberg

1948 Feb-Mar
310
44
Ulm-Kienlesberg

Jul-Aug
1,408
6
Ulm-Kienlesberg

Oct-Nov
5,615
0.1
Ulm-Kienlesberg

1949 Jan-Aug
2,541
0
Ulm-Kienlesberg
Soviet Union
1946 Aug
24,126
66
Friedland

Sep-Oct
12,260
83
Fiedland

1947 Mar-Jun

90
Friedland

1948 Feb-Dec
16,794
62
Hersfeld-Waldschänke

Mar-Dec
70,955
85
Hof-Moschendorf

Dec

54
Friedland

1949 Jan-Dec
21,427
67
Hersfeld-Waldschänke

Jan-Feb
390
36
Hof-Moschendorf

Jan-Feb

40
Friedland

May-Jun
9,202
48
Hof-Moschendorf

Oct
7,076
43
Hof-Moschendorf

Dec
15,587
68
Hof-Moschendorf

Dec-1950 Apr

70
Friedland

Jan
6,060
64
Hof-Moschendorf

Jan
2,391
58
Hersfeld-Waldschänke

Apr
1,729
69
Hof-Moschendorf

Feb-Sep
1,159
99
Hersfeld-Waldschänke
Poland
1948 Nov-Dec
446
70
Hersfeld-Waldschänke

Dec
1,446
86
Hof-Moschendorf

1949 Feb
1,421
77
Hof-Moschendorf

May-Jun
2,016
51
Hof-Moschendorf

Oct
419
82
Hof-Moschendorf

Feb-Dec
1,380
68
Hersfeld-Waldschänke

1950 Apr-May
109
100
Hersfeld-Waldschänke

Apr
138
65
Hof-Moschendorf

Jun
17
80
Hof-Moschendorf

1951 Apr
85
60
Hof-Moschendorf
Czechoslovakia
1948 Sep-Dec
1,421
46
Hof-Moschendorf

Dec
121
43
Hersfeld-Waldschänke

1950 Feb
113
86
Hersfeld-Waldschänke

1954 Jan-Mar
221
87
Hof-Moschendorf
Yugoslavia
1948 Nov-Dec
2,309
48
Hersfeld-Waldschänke

Dec
196
18
Hof-Moschendorf

Dec
4,485
46
Ulm-Kienlesberg

1949 Jan
2,494
50
Ulm-Kienlesberg

Jan-Feb
650
58
Hof-Moschendorf

Jan-Feb
915
58
Hersfeld-Waldschänke

Feb
17
33
Ulm-Kienlesberg

Aug
19
74
Hersfeld-Waldschänke

1950 Apr-Jun
220
9
Ulm-Kienlesberg

Of the Western powers it was especially France, which employed German POWs against the international laws for forced labor. Thousands of Germans perished or suffered horrible mutilations in French captivity while clearing mines.

The real gain from reparations did not come from Germany’s industrial installations, noted the US newsmagazine Life, “but from the German brain and the German research results.” Scientists were partly “forced with point blank pistols or with threats of war crime trials” to work for the victors. There were 523 German scientists in the USA in 1947; their number was to be increased to 1000.[19]

 

3. Summary and the Request for Equal Treatment of German Forced Laborers.

 

1.      The excessive wave of demands for reparations for forced labor in Germany during the Second World War in the final phase of the 20th century is on one hand the consequence of the missing peace treaty with Germany and on the other hand a sign of insufficient sovereignty and legal defense capability.

2.      The latter is a result of the re-education, but also becomes obvious by the one-sidedness of scientific research, which deals especially predominantly with the forced labor problems in Germany during the “Third Reich,” but barely with the rather difficult problem of forced labor of Germans in foreign countries. This should obviously be corrected.

3.      The form, extent, and motivation of this one-sided and quickly spreading “wave of demands for compensation for forced labor” against Germany in several areas is provocative, especially because the nations making such demands often behaved against German forced laborers neither less illegally nor less ruthlessly.


4.      The whole process becomes controversial when one considers how Germany was pillaged and robbed after the capitulation of the German Wehrmacht on May 8/9, 1945, during a continuation of the state of war in the West until 1951 and in the East until 1955. This was a rape and plunder of an entire nation unparalleled and unprecedented in every regard, which people who have the “merci of late birth” (former German chancellor Helmut Kohl) can hardly imagine.

5.      All governmental politicians in Germany have to swear an oath following article 56 of the German Basic Law, which requires them to avert damages from the German people. It is time that they take this oath seriously, meaning for example, that they should file class action suits against employers and nations on behalf of the German forced laborers in the spirit of equality before the law of the nations.

4. Forced Labor of POWs and Deported Civilians

The whole forced labor after the war, which amounts to at least 90 percent of the work shown here, was an infringement of international law unprecedented in scale in the history of mankind. To this day, the forced labor issue has unfortunately not been completely evaluated by any German public authority. It is here for the first time correctly displayed from an economic point of view.[20]

Days of Forced Labor Imprisonment
(A) POWs
3,502,452,000 (3.5 billion)
Performed by 11.094 million POWs – in eastern countries 3.349 million POWs – in western countries 7.745 million POWs. Of these, 1.5 million died while in captivity, of these 1.335 million in eastern countries. In total, every seventh POW died while in captivity. Two of five prisoners died in the east in death camps. The last prisoners returned home from the Soviet Union in 1956, eleven years after the end of the war!
(B) Civilian Deportees
3,805,000,000 (3.8 billion)
Performed by 1.7 million Germans deported in 1945. Of these, 580,000 died up until 1950 in eastern death camps every third deportee.
Total of Forced Labor Days
7,307,452,000 (7.3 billion)
Hours Worked
73,074,520,000 hrs (73 billion)
The prisoners had to work at least ten hours per day, which resulted in the above number of performed forced labor hours.
Cost of Labor:
$365,372,600,000 (365 billion U.S. Dollars)
This compensation for forced labor is derived using the 1999 U.S. hourly minimum wage of $5.

This amount is practically unimaginable. For comparison: All companies with more than 20 employees of German industry during 1985 with a total of 4,769,000 employees, performed 7,910,100,000 (7.9 billion) working hours. The total of all wages for this was 167.559 billion deutschmarks or roughly $56 billion U.S. Dollars (the median hourly wage was app. 21 deutschmarks or $7).[21]
The German forced laborers, POWs, and civilian deportees had to produce therefore almost ten times the yearly output in 1985 of all the workers of the West German industry!


The forced labor of the civilian deportees from the Soviet occupied areas of the German Reich proper and Austria could not be determined. There were more than 100,000 Germans who were deported for political reasons and who were almost without exception murdered during imprisonment. The same goes for the more than 100,000 people, who were held in Russian concentration camps of the Soviet occupied zone. The German media reported during a visit of former head of State of communist Germany Erich Honecker in West Germany that in Buchenwald concentration camp alone 80,000 prisoners were murdered after 1945 by the Soviets or their German communist lackeys.[22] A total of more than ten percent of the German population had to perform forced labor for years against all international laws.[23]

Notes


First published in Deutsche Militärzeitschrift, Nr. 18, 1999, pp. 21–26; pictures: Archive Prof. E. Schlee.
W. Martini, Der Sieger schreibt die Geschichte. Anmerkungen zur Zeitgeschichte, Munich 1991, p. 10.
E. Jäckel, Das deutsche Jahrhundert. Eine historische Bilanz, Stuttgart 1996; similar also Chr. Graf v. Krockow, Die Deutschen in ihrem Jahrhundert 1890–1990, rororo-Sachbuch 9195, Reinbek 1991.
A. Baring, Wem gehört das Jahrhundert?, book review of E. Jäkkel, Das deutsche Jahrhundert, op. cit. (note 2), in: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Jan. 29, 1997, p. 12.
See D. Bavendamm, Roosevelts Krieg 1937–45 und das Rätsel von Pearl Harbor, Munich, Berlin 1993; D. Kunert, Ein Weltkrieg wird programmiert. Hitler, Roosevelt, Stalin: Die Vorgeschichte des 2. Weltkriegs nach Primärquellen, Kiel 1984; C. B. Dall, Amerikas Kriegspolitik. Roosevelt und seine Hintermänner, Tübingen 1972; B. Colby, Roosevelts scheinheiliger Krieg. Amerikas Betrug und Propaganda im Kampf gegen Deutschland, Leoni 1977; H. Fish, Der zerbrochene Mythos, F. D. Roosevelts Kriegspolitik 19331948, Tübingen 1982; E. Schlee, Deutschland und die Kriegsschuldfrage. Die Behauptungen der Alleinkriegsschuld Deutschlands sind überholt, Rosenheim 1999; E. Schlee, Wessen Krieg war es denn nun eigentlich? Eine kleine Kriegsschuldfrage-Dokumentation; in: R. Uhle-Wettler, (Hg,), Wagnis Wahrheit. Historiker in Handschellen? Festschrift für David Irving. Kiel 1998, pp. 97–121.
Ibid; also: E. Schlee, Friedensbemühungen Deutschlands im Zweiten Weltkrieg, in: Deutsche Militärzeitschrift No. 17 (March 1999), pp. 14–19.
U.S. Senator Hiram Johnson; in: M. Baham, Kriegstrommeln. Medien, Krieg u. Politik, Munich 1996, p. 36.
Fr. Hebbel, Tagebücher, vol. I, Vienna 1885; quoted in: K. Peltzer, Das treffende Zitat. Gedankengut aus drei Jahrtausenden und fünf Kontinenten, Thun 1974, p. 259.
Statistisches Bundesamt, in: VdHD e.V. (ed.), Die deutschen Kriegsgefangenen des Zweiten Weltkrieges, Bonn-Bad Godesberg. 1989.
Quoted in: Ztschr. Nation Europa, 5, 1954, p. 4.
Quoted in: E. Maier-Dorn, Alleinkriegsschuld, Großaitingen 1970, p. 149.
H. A. Kissinger, “Die Einigung Europas darf nicht auf Kosten der NATO erfolgen. Die Prämissen, aus denen die Atlantische Allianz ihre Existenzberechtigung ableitet, brechen zusammen,” Welt am Sonntag, no. 9, March 1, 1992, p. 5.
Gore Vidal in an interview with der Berliner Zeitung, no. 2/1997, Jan. 3, 1997.
In: Ruhrwort, 21(23), Juni 9, 1979, p. 3; Was Heimkehrer nie vergessen werden. In Bochums “Dankeskirche” bleibt die Erinnerung wach, Special print, Bistum Essen.
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung of March 31, 1999, p. 51.
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, March 16, 1999, p. 54.
D. Friede, Das russische Perpetuum Mobile, Würzburg 1959; see chapter “28 Nationen in den Zwangsarbeitslagern:” “Die Zahl der Sklaven ist achtstellig geworden.” “Die Sklaven-Reservoirs”; of great importance are the 22 documentary volumes of the Wissenschaftlichen Kommission für deutsche Kriegsgefangenengeschichte, from 1957 to 1974, edited under the directorate of Prof. Dr. Erich Maschke: E. Maschke, (ed.), Zur Geschichte der Deutschen Kriegsgefangenen des Zweiten Weltkrieges, Bielefeld 1962; introduction in vol. pp. VII–XX.
D. Friede, ibid., p. 68; see also: St. Courtois, Das Schwarzbuch des Kommunismus. Unterdrückung, Verbrechen und Terror, Munich, Zürich 1998; G. Schirmer, Sachsenhausen – Workuta. Zehn Jahre in den Fängen der Sowjets, Tübingen 1992; P. Carell, G. Böddekker, Die Gefangenen. Leben und Überleben deutscher Soldaten hinter Stacheldraht, Darmstadt 1980; G. Frey, Deutschlands Ausplünderung, Munich 1993; Verband der Heimkehrer, G. Berndt, Die deutschen Kriegsgefangenen des Zweiten Weltkrieges. Ein geschichtlicher Abriß in Fakten, Bonn-Bad Godesberg 1989; Deutsches Rotes Kreuz-Suchdienst (ed.), Zur Geschichte der Kriegsgefangenen im Westen. USA – Großbritannien – Frankreich – Belgien – (Schweden), Bonn 1962; L. Peters, Das Schicksal der deutschen Kriegsgefangenen. Wir haben Euch nicht vergessen!, Tübingen 1995 (I took some illustrations from this for my article, pp. 394, 476); H.H. Meyer, Kriegsgefangene im Kalten Krieg. Die Kriegsgefangenenpolitik der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im amerikanisch-sowjetischen Machtkampf von 1950–1955, Osnabrück 1998.
A.E. Epifanow, H. Mayer, Die Tragödie der deutschen Kriegsgefangenen in Stalingrad von 1942–1956 nach russischen Archivunterlagen, Osnabrück 1996, p. 204.
See G. Frey, op. cit. (note 17), p. 240.
Numbers from: Zur Geschichte der deutschen Kriegsgefangenen des Zweiten Weltkrieges, vol. XV, pp. 191 ff., Verlag Ernst und Werner Gieseking, Bielefeld 1974, and Gerhard Reichling, Die Deutschen Vertriebenen in Zahlen, Kulturstiftung des Deutschen Volkes, Bonn 1986. The statistical data are calculated using reasonable economic methods.
Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1986, p. 178.
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Sept. 12, 1987.
Karl Baßler, “Die Ausraubung des Deutschen Volkes,” Huttenbriefe, issues 1–3, 1988, Stockstadt.